Impacto de la carga de trabajo del paciente crónico en la adherencia terapéutica.

Ylenia de los Ángeles Martín Santana, Juan José Suárez Sánchez, Alfonso Miguel García Hernández

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/cuid.2022.%2064.21

Resumen

Objetivo: Relacionar la carga de trabajo del paciente crónico independiente con la adherencia terapéutica. Método: Estudio analítico observacional de tipo transversal. La muestra consta de 390 pacientes de la Zona Básica de Salud de Mogán (Gran Canaria), seleccionados de forma sistemática según cumplieran el criterio de paciente crónico mayor de 50 años con enfermedad cardiovascular establecida incluyéndose diagnósticos de Infarto Agudo de Miocardio, Fibrilación Auricular e Insuficiencia cardíaca (IAM, FA e IC). Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica (EPOC) y enfermedad neurológica con los diagnósticos de ICTUS y Parkinson. Se utilizó el cuestionario “Treatment Burden Questionnarie” (TBQ) para cuantificar la carga de trabajo, y la Escala de Adherencia al Tratamiento de Morisky (MMAS-8) para la adherencia. Resultados: El 40,5% de la muestra presenta una carga moderada y adherencia moderada (38,2%)-baja (35,4%). La baja-moderada adherencia se asoció con una puntuación elevada del TBQ (puntuación media de 64,8 puntos). Los grupos de enfermedades que mayor carga tienen son las neurológicas (puntuación media TBQ 74,73 puntos), EPOC (puntuación media TBQ de 69,08 puntos), y, por último, las enfermedades cardiovasculares (puntuación media TBQ de 64,47 puntos). Existe una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la carga de trabajo y la adherencia terapéutica x2= 68,343 p <0,000.  Conclusiones: Los pacientes crónicos con mayor carga de trabajo presentan una menor adherencia terapéutica.


Palabras clave

Carga de Trabajo; adherencia al tratamiento; enfermedad crónica; cuestionarios; enfermería.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/cuid.2022.%2064.21





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