Experiencias de afrontamiento psicosocial en el contexto de aislamiento social obligatorio, en jefes de familia de Lima Metropolitana

Eli Malvaceda-Espinoza, Sascha Reinstein-Romero, Marbet Segovia-Roque, Solanghe Sayán-Cortéz, Karla Castillejo-Rodriguez, Carlos Arenas Iparraguirre

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/cuid.2022.%2064.02

Resumen

La presente investigación busca analizar las experiencias de afrontamiento psicosocial en el contexto de Aislamiento Social Obligatorio, producto del COVID-19, en jefes de familia de Lima metropolitana. Para ello se realizó una investigación cualitativa de diseño fenomenológico, así se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas en profundidad a 17 participantes, quienes son jefes de familia, provenientes de distritos con altos y bajos ingresos económicos. Los resultados evidencian que se experimentan, por un lado, los estilos centrados en el problema, desde el cual se refiere el afrontamiento activo, la planificación, la reestructuración de actividades y rutinas, así como el desplazamiento y cambio de prioridades. De otro lado, se encuentran los estilos centrados en las emociones, tales como la aceptación y agencia, la búsqueda de apoyo emocional, la reinterpretación positiva y la liberación de emociones. Asimismo, existen diferencias en la experimentación del afrontamiento, ya sea por la pertenencia a distritos con mayores o menores ingresos económicos, o con relación a si se trata de hombres, mujeres o personas de género no binario. Se concluye que las experiencias de afrontamiento varían de acuerdo con las diferentes características socioeconómicas y de género de los participantes, siendo necesaria una mirada interseccional en el análisis.


Palabras clave

Afrontamiento; aislamiento social obligatorio; COVID-19; fenomenología; jefes de familia

Texto completo:

PDF Estadísticas

Referencias

Ahmed, Z., Ahmed, O., Aibao, Z., Hanbin, S., Siyu, L., & Ahmad, A. (2020). Epidemic of COVID-19 in China and associated Psychological Problems. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, 102090. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102092

Al-Rabiaah, A., Temsah, M., Al-Eyadhy, A., Hasan, G., Al-Zamil, F., Al-Subaie, S., Alsohime, F., Jamal, A., Alhaboob, A., Al-Saadi, B., & Somily, A. (2020). Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) associated stress among medical students at a university teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 13(5), 687-691.. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2020.01.005

Banks, L. M., Davey, C., Shakespeare, T., & Kuper, H. (2021). Disability-inclusive responses to COVID-19: Lessons learnt from research on social protection in low- and middle-income countries. World Development, 137, 105178. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105178

Bidisha, S.H., Mahmood, T. & Hossain, M.B. (2021). Assessing Food Poverty, Vulnerability and Food Consumption Inequality in the Context of COVID-19: A Case of Bangladesh. Soc Indic Res. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-020-02596-1

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2013). Successful qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks: SAGE

Brinkmann, S. (2013). Qualitative Interviewing. Understanding qualitative research. New York: Oxford University Press.

Brooks, S., Webster, R., Smith, L., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & James, G. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet, 395(10227), 912-920. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8

Buheji, M. (2020). Psychological Resilience and Poor Communities Coping with COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 10(4),100-108. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.ijpbs.20201004.03

Cao, W., Fang, Z., Hou, G., Han, M., Xu, X., Dong, J., & Zheng, J. (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry Research, 287, 112934. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112934

Carver, C., Scheier, M., y Weintraub, J. (1989). Assessing Coping Strategies: A Theoretically Based Approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(2), 267-283. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.56.2.267

Castelnuovo, G., De Giorgio, A., Manzoni, G. M., Treadway, D. C., & Mohiyeddini, C. (2020). Psychological, Behavioral, and Interpersonal Effects and Clinical Implications for Health Systems of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Call for Research. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 2146. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.02146

Cerami, C., Santi, G. C., Galandra, C., Dodich, A., Cappa, S. F., Vecchi, T., & Crespi, C. (2020). Covid-19 Outbreak In Italy: Are We Ready for the Psychosocial and the Economic Crisis? Baseline Findings From the PsyCovid Study. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, 556. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00556

Chew, Q. H., Chia, F. L.-A., Ng, W. K., Lee, W. C. I., Tan, P. L. L., Wong, C. S., Puah, S. H., Shelat, V. G., Seah, E.-J. D., Huey, C. W. T., Phua, E. J., & Sim, K. (2020). Perceived stress, stigma, traumatic stress levels and coping responses amongst residents in training across multiple specialties during COVID-19 pandemic—a longitudinal study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(18), 6572. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186572

Creswell, J., & Poth, C. N. (2018). Qualitative inquiry and Research design: Choosing among five approaches (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Das S., Rasul MG., Hossain MS., Khan, A., Alam, MA., Ahmed, T. & Clemens, J. (2020). Acute food insecurity and short-term coping strategies of urban and rural households of Bangladesh during the lockdown period of COVID-19 pandemic of 2020: report of a cross-sectional survey. BMJ Open, 10(12). e043365. https://doi.org/10.1136/ bmjopen-2020-043365

Dorman-Ilan, S., Hertz-Palmor, N., Brand-Gothelf, A., Hasson-Ohayon, I., Matalon, N., Gross, R., Chen, W., Abramovich, A., Afek, A., Ziv, A., Kreiss, Y., Pessach, I. M., & Gothelf, D. (2020). Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in COVID-19 Isolated Patients and in Their Relatives. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, 1042. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.581598

Elo, S., Kääriäinen, M., Kanste, O., Pölkki, T., Utriainen, K., y Kyngäs, H. (2014). Qualitative Content Analysis: A Focus on Trustworthiness. SAGE Open, 4(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244014522633

Fluharty, M., & Fancourt, D. (2020, August 27). How have people been coping during the COVID-19 pandemic? Patterns and predictors of coping strategies amongst 26,580 UK adults. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/nx7y5

Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (2018a). Perú: Informe Sociodemográfico. Informe Nacional. Lima: INEI. Recuperado de: https://www.inei.gob.pe/media/MenuRecursivo/publicaciones_digitales/Est/Lib1539/

Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (2018b). Mapa de pobreza monetaria provincial y distrital 2018. Lima: INEI. Recuperado de: https://www.inei.gob.pe/media/MenuRecursivo/publicaciones_digitales/Est/Lib1718/Libro.pdf

Kislyakov, P. A. (2020). Psychological resistance of student youth to information stress in the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospects for Science and Education, 5(47), 343–356. https://doi.org/10.32744/pse.2020.5.24

Hao, F., Tam, W., Hu, X., Tan, W., Jiang, L., Jiang, X., Zhang, L., Zhao, X., Zou, Y., Hu, Y., Luo, X., McIntyre, R. S., Quek, T., Tran, B. X., Zhang, Z., Pham, H. Q., Ho, C. S. H., & Ho, R. C. M. (2020). A quantitative and qualitative study on the neuropsychiatric sequelae of acutely ill COVID-19 inpatients in isolation facilities. Translational Psychiatry, 10, 355. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-01039-2

Lazarus, R. & Folkman, S. (1986). Estrés y procesos cognitivos. Barcelona: Martínez Roca.

Liu, N., Zhang, F., Wei, C., Jia, Y., Shang, Z., Sun, L., Wu, L., Sun, Z., Zhou, Y., Wang, Y., & Liu, W. (2020). Prevalence and predictors of PTSS during COVID-19 outbreak in China hardest-hit areas: Gender differences matter. Psychiatry Research, 287(112921). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112921

Mariani, R., Renzi, A., Di Trani, M., Trabucchi, G., Danskin, K., & Tambelli, R. (2020). The Impact of Coping Strategies and Perceived Family Support on Depressive and Anxious Symptomatology During the Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19) Lockdown. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, 1195. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.587724

Mathias, K., Rawat, M., Philip, S., & Grills, N. (2020). “We’ve got through hard times before” : acute mental distress and coping among disadvantaged groups during COVID-19 lockdown in North India - a qualitative study. Int J Equity Health, 19, 224. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-020-01345-7

Miles, M., Huberman, M., & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative Data Analysis. A Methods Sourcebook (3Th.). Arizona: SAGE.

Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. (2020). Encuesta sobre percepciones y actitudes de mujeres y hombres frente al Aislamiento Social Obligatorio a consecuencia del COVID-19. MIMP. Recuperado de: https://www.mimp.gob.pe/files/Encuesta_sobre_percepciones_y_actitudes_COVID-19.pdf

Moore, K. A., & Lucas, J. J. (2020). COVID-19 distress and worries: The role of attitudes, social support, and positive coping during social isolation. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12308

Munk, A. J. L., Schmid, N. M., Alexander, N., Henkel, K., & Hennig, J. (2020). Covid-19-Beyond virology: Potentials for maintaining mental health during lockdown. PLoS ONE, 15. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0236688

Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. (2016). Designing Qualitative Research (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Office, E. E., Rodenstein, M. S., Merchant, T. S., Pendergrast, T. R., & Lindquist, L. A. (2020). Reducing Social Isolation of Seniors during COVID-19 through Medical Student Telephone Contact. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 21(7), 948–950. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.06.003

Othman, Z., & Ibrahim, A. Z. (2020). COVID-19: Coping strategies among b40 households in Malaysia to achieve food security during Movement Control Order (MCO). European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 7(6), 1513-1524. https://ejmcm.com/article_3867.html

Park, C. L., Russell, B. S., Fendrich, M., Finkelstein-Fox, L., Hutchison, M., & Becker, J. (2020). Americans’ COVID-19 Stress, Coping, and Adherence to CDC Guidelines. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 35(8), 2296–2303. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-020-05898-9

Presidencia del Consejo de Ministros. (19 de abril de 2020). Decreto Supremo Nº 044-2020-PCM. Recuperado de: https://cdn.www.gob.pe/uploads/document/file/566448/DS044-PCM_1864948-2.pdf

Rajkumar, R. (2020). COVID-19 and mental health: A review of the existing literature. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 52(102066). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102066

Ricci-Cabello, I., Meneses, J., Serrano-Ripoll, M., Fraile-Navarro, D., Fiol, M., Pastor-Moreno, G., Castro, A., Ruiz, I., Zamanillo, R., & Gonçalves, D. (2020). Impact of viral epidemic outbreaks on mental health of healthcare workers: A rapid systematic review. MedRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.02.20048892

Robinson, O. C. (2014). Sampling in Interview-Based Qualitative Research: A Theoretical and Practical Guide. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 11(1), 25–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/14780887.2013.801543

Roma, P., Monaro, M., Colasanti, M., Ricci, E., Biondi, S., Di Domenico, A., Verrocchio, M. C., Napoli, C., Ferracuti, S., & Mazza, C. (2020). A 2-month follow-up study of psychological distress among italian people during the COVID-19 lockdown. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(21), 8180. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218180

Roy, D. Tripathy, S., Kumar, S., Sharma, N., Kumar, S., & Kaushal, V. (2020). Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety & perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pandemic. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, 102083. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102083

Swain, J. (2018). A Hybrid Approach to Thematic Analysis in Qualitative Research: Using a Practical Example. SAGE Publications Ltd.. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781526435477

Talarowska, M., Chodkiewicz, J., Nawrocka, N., Miniszewska, J., & Biliński, P. (2020). Mental Health and the SARS-COV-2 Epidemic—Polish Research Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(19), 7015. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197015

Tavory, I., & Timmermans, S. (2018). Abductive analysis: theorizing qualitative research. London: The University of Chicago Press.

Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C., & Ho, R. (2020). Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), 1729. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051729

World Health Organization. (4 de marzo de 2021a). WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard. Disponible en: https://covid19.who.int/

World Health Organization. (28 de julio de 2021b). Global, Perú. Disponible en: https://covid19.who.int/region/amro/country/pe

Zhang, M.-M., Niu, N., Zhi, X.-X., Zhu, P., Wu, B., Wu, B.-N., Meng, A.-F., & Zhao, Y. (2021). Nurses’ psychological changes and coping strategies during home isolation for the 2019 novel coronavirus in China: A qualitative study . Journal of Advanced Nursing, 77(1), 308–317. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.14572




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/cuid.2022.%2064.02





Copyright (c) 2022 Eli Malvaceda-Espinoza, Sascha Reinstein-Romero, Marbet Segovia-Roque, Solanghe Sayán-Cortéz, Karla Castillejo-Rodriguez, Carlos Arenas Iparraguirre

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.